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Hobo con nhện, nhện
The hobo spider (Eratigena agrestis, formerly Tegenaria agrestis) is a member of the genus of spiders known colloquially as funnel web spiders, but not to be confused with the Australian funnel-web spider. Individuals construct a funnel-shaped structure of silk sheeting and lie in wait at the small end of the funnel for prey insects to blunder onto their webs. Hobo spiders sometimes build their webs in or around human habitations.
The species was first described in 1802 by naturalist Charles Athanase Walckenaer as Aranea agrestis,<sup></sup> in reference to its western European habitat in fields, woods, and under rocks.<sup></sup> In 1841, Walckenaer transferred the species to the genus Tegenaria.<sup></sup> In 2013, Tegenaria was split up, and the hobo spider was transferred to a new genus Eratigena, an anagram of Tegenaria.<sup></sup><sup></sup>
Spiders, including the hobo spider, vary considerably in appearance, and identification can be difficult. The hobo spider is 7-14 mm in body length, and brownish in color.<sup></sup>Identification relies on an examination of the spider’s anatomy. Like many species of spider the positive identification of Eratigena agrestis requires microscopic examination of the epigynum and palpal bulb (the female and male sex organs respectively) and is best done by an arachnologist. However, the following characteristics identify hobo spiders among other species with a similar general appearance:
- Hobo spiders lack the colored bands found on many spiders of the Agelenidae family where the leg joints meet.<sup></sup>
- The abdomen has chevron (V-shaped) patterns (possibly many of them) down the middle, with the chevrons pointing towards the head.<sup></sup>
- Hobo spiders have a light stripe running down the middle of the sternum. If the spider instead has three or four pairs of light spots on the lateral portions of the sternum, then it is one of the other two related Eratigena species. However absence of spots is not conclusive proof that the spider is a hobo spider, since the spots on other Eratigena species may be extremely faint and not readily visible.<sup></sup>
- Hobo spiders do not have two distinct longitudinal dark stripes on the top side of the cephalothorax, instead showing indistinct or diffused patterns. Washington spiders with distinct dark stripes include spiders from the genera Agelenopsis and Hololena and possibly some wolf spiders.<sup></sup>
Distribution and habitat
Eratigena agrestis is distributed from Europe to Central Asia, and is also found in the United States and Canada.<sup></sup> It is recorded in the checklist of Danish spider species,<sup></sup> and is present on the small island of Peberholm, probably having been carried there by foreign trains.<sup></sup>
It is a resident of fields, rarely entering human habitations due to the presence of major competitors, particularly the giant house spider (Eratigena atrica), which is a common resident of houses and other man-made structures in Europe. As a result, human contacts with the hobo spider are uncommon in Europe.<sup></sup> Hobo spiders build a horizontal, trampoline-like web near brick walls or wood piles where the spider has shelter and awaits prey.<sup></sup>
Although the toxicity and aggression of the hobo spider have long been debated, there is little evidence that the hobo spider is a dangerously venomous species.<sup></sup> The CDCreported case studies in the 1990s claiming that the hobo spider bite caused isolated cases of necrosis in people,<sup></sup><sup></sup> but as of 2017, the CDC no longer lists the hobo spider among venomous species.<sup></sup> In Canada, there is no evidence that hobo spider bites cause skin necrosis.<sup></sup>
- ^ Jump up to:<sup>a</sup> <sup>b</sup> <sup>c</sup> <sup>d</sup> <sup>e</sup> <sup>f</sup> <cite>"Taxon details Eratigena agrestis (Walckenaer, 1802)", World Spider Catalog, Natural History Museum Bern, retrieved 2016-01-03</cite>
- ^ Faune Parisienne, vol. 2, p. 187
- ^ <cite>Bolzern, Angelo; Burckhardt, Daniel; Hänggi, Ambros (2013). "Phylogeny and taxonomy of European funnel-web spiders of the Tegenaria-Malthonica complex (Araneae: Agelenidae) based upon morphological and molecular data". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 168: 723–848. doi:10.1111/zoj.12040.</cite>
- ^ Jump up to:<sup>a</sup> <sup>b</sup> <sup>c</sup> <cite>Vetter RS, Visscher PK (5 February 2001). "Bites and stings of medically important venomous arthropods". Department of Entomology, University of California-Riverside. Archived from the original on 5 February 2001. Retrieved 15 January 2019.</cite>
- ^ Jump up to:<sup>a</sup> <sup>b</sup> <sup>c</sup> <cite>Vetter, R.; Antonelli, A. "How to identify (or misidentify) the hobo spider" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-08-07.</cite>
- ^ <cite>"Checklist of Danish Spiders (Araneae)". 26 October 2011.</cite>
- ^ Dermatology E-Book ISBN 978-0-723-43571-6 p. 1448
- ^ <cite>Crawford, Rodney L (27 October 2015). "Myths about "dangerous" spiders". Burke Museum, University of Washington.</cite>
- ^ <cite>Crawford, Rodney L. "Hobo Spider: Natural History". Burke Museum, University of Washington.</cite>
- ^ <cite>"Necrotic arachnidism- Pacific Northwest, 1988-1996". US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1996.</cite>
- ^ <cite>"Venomous spiders". US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 31 May 2018. Retrieved 7 May 2017.</cite>
- ^ <cite>Bennett, R.G.; Vetter, R.S. (August 2004). "An approach to spider bites. Erroneous attribution of dermonecrotic lesions to brown recluse or hobo spider bites in Canada". Canadian Family Physician. 50: 1098–1101. PMC 2214648. PMID 15455808.</cite>
- <cite>Binford, G.J. (July 2001). "An analysis of geographic and intersexual chemical variation in venoms of the spider Tegenaria agrestis (Agelenidae)". Toxicon. 39 (7): 955–68. doi:10.1016/S0041-0101(00)00234-8. PMID 11223084.</cite>
- <cite>Isbister, G.K.; Gray, M.R. (August 2003). "White-tail spider bite: a prospective study of 130 definite bites by Lampona species". The Medical Journal of Australia. 179 (4): 199–202. PMID 12914510.</cite>
- <cite>Vetter, R.S. (2001). "Hobo spider". Univ. Calif. Pest Notes #7488.</cite>
In Congress, July 4, 1776
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America, When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of Representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public Records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasions on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without, and convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the population of these States; for that purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of Foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migrations hither, and raising the conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his Assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the tenure of their offices, and the amount and payment of their salaries.
He has erected a multitude of New Offices, and sent hither swarms of Officers to harrass our people, and eat out their substance.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, Standing Armies without the Consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For Quartering large bodies of armed troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all parts of the world:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pretended offences
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an Arbitrary government, and enlarging its Boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the Forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of Cruelty & perfidy scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the Head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes and conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions We have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated injury. A Prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have We been wanting in attentions to our Brittish brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the united States of America, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be Free and Independent States; that they are Absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State of Great Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as Free and Independent States, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.